Strength training guidelines tend to be based on stress factors such as relative weight, repetitions, sets, rest inbetween sets, muscle action velocity and number of sessions per week. Based on the stress-strain-concept, empirical results and training experience require additional parameters related to the molecular and cellular adaptations for an effective strength training concept. In contrast to what has generally been assumed, it is notable that the individual percentage of 1-Repetition-Maximum (1 RM) is not the intensity but only a relative training load and therefore a stress factor. Intensity is referred to here as a strain factor, operationalized as the level of effort applied to a given load.
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In the science and practice of strength training it is sometimes suggested that the deep squat entails an increased injury risk of the lumbar spine and the knee joint. Avoiding deep flexion is believed to minimize the magnitude of knee joint forces. Because within the first 50° of knee flexion calculated retropatellar compressive stress is lower, execution of quarter or half squats is recommended when overuse injuries and degenerative changes of the patella-tendon-complex exist.
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Problems: Correlations between the occlusal situation and the movement apparatus are currently controversially discussed in literature. However, studies with athletes are missing in this area. Therefore the question arises, whether a systematic block of the occlusion by a silicone panel shows effects on the postural control in athletes. Methods: In this study 16 male volunteers of a team of 1. Handball league were investigated. With the help of 1 or 2 mm thick silicon panel their occlusion was blocked symmetrical and asymmetrical. The effects in terms of their postural control were recorded on a force plate (GP Multisens, GeBioM, Münster/Germany).
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Strength training has numerous positive effects on fitness, health, and physical performance. In terms of Evidenced Based Training, however, there is a scientific lack of facts regarding the efficiency of different physical criteria and training methodology. By means of a meta-analysis including 45 primary studies and a total num ber of 1712 participants, 203 effect sizes in pre-post design were identi-fied regarding the variation of maximum strength. The effect sizes found differed depending on individual preconditions, such as train ing status, gender, age, and methodological variables like du-ration of study, total training frequency, training parameters, etc.
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Strength and power are next to the other conditional requirements, as well as the technical, tactical, psychological requirements, a limiting factor in team sports. Therefore, it makes sense to also train strength. The maximal strength is understood as the maximal force the neuromuscular system can produce during a maximal voluntary contraction. A high maximal power is in many sports a basis for a high level of performance. The explosive strength is the ability of the neuromuscular system to develop a maximum impulse within a given time (Schmidtbleicher, 2003).
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Early detection and monitoring of overweight and obesity in childhood has become a public health priority worldwide in the 21st century. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the current prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity among 5, 10 and 14 year-olds children in Liechtenstein. The study is based on a time series of 4 cross-sectional screening examinations conducted in 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010 and included data of 2978 children (1490 boys and 1488 girls). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated on anthropometric measurements and categorised using international as well as German cut-off criteria.
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