Objectives: The objectives of this study were to observe the developmental trajectories of motivation types among young children from 8 to 12 years using a more comprehensive scale of physical education motivation. We also tested the relations between these trajectories and objective physical activity during this period.
Concentric and eccentric muscle work is characterized through different biochemical activating cascades. Concentric contraction is characterized by an ATP O2 coupling dependent interaction of the myofibril proteins Aktin and Myosin. In eccentric contraction, according to the Winding-filament hypothesis, a rotation movement around the thin filament is caused which is ATP independent. In addition, the processes of motor anticipation vary greatly between the two. This leads to the aim of the study: What are the differences in concentric versus eccentric muscle work concerning anticipation, perception and execution.
This observational study used field tests to investigate the association between physiological parameters and rowing performance in athletes during ergometer and on-water Swiss national competitions. 25 Participants between 15 and 35 years who compete at national level were recruited among different clubs. We assessed anthropometric parameters such as weight, height, aerobic capacity during an incremental test on a rowing ergometer, anaerobic capacity during an on rowing ergometer Wingate test and lower limb strength and power during countermovement- and squat jumps.
Background: The development of Mountain Ultra Marathon (MUM) raises several questions to health professionals, regarding the short or long-term consequences on the health of participants.
Objective: to present the main acute and long-term effects of MUM on the main health issues usually studied among runners.
Methods: Pragmatic review of the literature, including grey literature from the medical staff of the races, notably the Ultra-trail du Mont Blanc.
Patients with a patellofemoral pain are either in an acute state after a patellofemoral dislocation or are suffering from a chronic anterior knee pain (AKP), whereas AKP might be accompanied by patellar instability without dislocation. Whereas the acute state after a dislocation is mostly clear and its examination limited, the examination of a AKP is much more complex. A profound knowledge of the anatomy, the painful structures and patellofemoral biomechanics is essential in order to find the underlying pathology within the heterogeneous and diverse etiologies. Furthermore, a meticulous and precise examination is key to find the adequate treatment for AKP.
This article described the clinical examination of the lower extremity during a pre-participation screening in regard of sports ability, presence of injuries and musculoskeletal disorders as well as predisposing risk factors for injuries and prevention. It divided into global static and dynamic testing but also isolated analysis of joint function.
Meniscal Ramp lesions are frequently associated with Anterior Cruciate Ligament ruptures. It has been reported to play a key role in the anterior tibial translation the knee joint. Ramp lesions are difficult to diagnose in imaging modality and are under-recognized when using standard anterolateral and anteromedial arthroscopic portals even with probe test.
The Lausanne Youth Olympic Games in January 2020 represent a unique opportunity for the canton of Vaud to strengthen its policy of health promotion through physical activity and sport among young people. Several factors influence physical activity and physical fitness of a population. Ecological models describe correlates of physical activity in general population and youth. However, no model describes correlates of physical fitness. To close this gap, the model of physical fitness and its correlates among children and adolescents of the canton of Vaud (PACE model) was developed.
Back pain is common among elite cyclists. Experiences of athletes and observations of coaches show that it may influence training quality and sometimes even limit performance during competition. Therefore the following study questions were investigated: 1) How many athletes of the Swiss cycling national teams suffer back pain during training or competition? 2) How good is athletes’ core strength? 3) What correlation exists between back pain and core strength? 4) Does an intensified core strength training reduce back pain?
A total of 111 elite cyclists, 45 athletes (38 m, 7f; 19.6 ± 3.5y) of technical disciplines (BMX, Trial, Downhill, 4X) and 66 athletes (39 m, 27f; 19.5 ± 5.8y) of endurance disciplines (road, MTB, Cyclo-cross) all members of Swiss cycling national teams, took part in in the study.
Arthroplasty is a common procedure in orthopedic surgery to address severe osteoarthritis (OA) in the hip joint. With the burgeoning “baby boomer” generation and older athletes who wish to return to competitive levels of sports, understanding how sporting activity affects arthroplasty outcomes is becoming exceptionally important.
The demand for total joint arthroplasty is projected to increase in the first three decades of the twenty-first century. Patients who have had a hip or knee replacement are more and more expecting to participate in athletics after rehabilitation.
Myocarditis is defined as an inflammation of the heart muscle and its presentation, especially in athletes, is heterogeneous. Underlying causes include in most of the cases viruses, and less often bacteria, toxins, vasculitic diseases or pharmaceutical agents. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is the primary imaging tool to diagnose myocarditis following laboratory test, electrocardiogram and echocardiography. In certain cases, endomyocardial biopsy is required, especially in unclear cases with reduced systolic left ventricular ejection fraction.
Background: Diffusion of information regarding ‘protecting athletes’ health’ and the ‘promotion of sport for health of the general population’ is a mission of National Sports Federations. Internet is a commonly used source of health-related information. The Olympic Games (OG) are an opportunity for a nation to promote the health benefits of sport.
Young competitive athletes are particularly at risk during puberty. Growth plates and apophyses are reduced in their stability by hormone influence. Epiphyses can slip, apophyses can tear out. Therefore, a regular examination of those athletes is important. The examination should focus on muscular asymmetries, or reduced range of motion of a joint. Shortened muscles have to be recon as a risk factor for apophysitis. Dysbalances of the musculature are mainly found in the trunk area.
Training plans should be adapted to the increased vulnerability.
A common complaint in the musculoskeletal system is the anterior knee pain (AKP) or the so called patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). The large number of contributing factors that lead to the symptoms make a proper diagnosis and targeted physiotherapeutic treatment management difficult. With regard to symptom-complex-oriented physiotherapeutic care, the question arises as to which therapy methods should be used for individuals with AKP. In order to be able to identify adequate physical therapy methods, an understanding of the clinical condition and the chosen treatment method is essential. This article aims to present a heuristic model of objectives and situational physiotherapeutic treatment methods.
Exercise testing in athletes and patients is an important and valuable diagnostic tool in the hand of the physician and sport scientist. A close collaboration between sport scientist and sport physician creates a win-win-win-situation for athletes and patients and professionals equally. According to the demands of the sport an incremental lactate threshold test (determination of the anaerobic threshold), testing of VO2max and performance at VO2max, and a testing of aerobic capacity (performance at competitional level) are the tests of choice. All tests need to be valid, reliable and sport specific. Sport specificity in testing is for practical purposes the most important.
There seems to be a lack of consensus among medical associations, professional sports bodies and medical professionals about when pre-participation evaluations (PPE) are indicated and how they should be designed. Although it is generally accepted that the primary purpose of the PPE is the identification of cardiovascular disease and risk factors for sudden cardiac death in competitive athletes, there is an ongoing debate on which methods are most apt in the screening process. Furthermore, the need of PPE has been questioned all together in leisure or hobby athletes.
Physical inactivity is a known risk factor for stroke. The interaction between exercise and risk of stroke is complex. Physical activity has a beneficial effect on most risk factors for stroke, which may show reciprocal potentiation (e.g. obesity, sleep apnea, atrial fibrillation). Advice on physical activity is of importance in primary prevention of stroke. Hereby, type, amount and intensity of physical activity may be distinguished and adjusted according to comorbidities (e.g. in case of heart failure).
This case report presents the evolution of physiological and psychological health parameters of a former sedentary and physically inactive nursing student during an 18 months period (three academic semesters), during which she first took part to a one-semester institutional physical activity (PA) program offered by her University, before being selected to participate in relay to the Race Across America (RAAM) with a team of the University. The four months before the RAAM, she followed a cycling specific training program. After the RAAM, she was followed-up the next eight months.
The actual significance and definition of hypertensive response to exercise (HRE) is still debated. Up to now, there is consensus in defining it as a systolic blood pressure value of either ≥ 210 mmHg in men and ≥ 190 mmHg in women or a diastolic blood pressure ≥ 110 mmHg during maximal exercise stress test.
The mechanisms underlying an exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise are poorly understood; however, there are studies suggesting that HRE may represent a preclinical stadium of essential hypertension, which shares several common pathological mechanisms mostly related to an endothelial dysfunction and vascular stiffness.
The elbow is a frequently underestimated and commonly misunderstood joint, leading to a considerable amount of clinical problems. A large part of this due to the largely overlapping and often unspecific symptoms of various diseases and injuries. A better understanding of elbow symptoms and the clinical exam of the elbow is the key to unlocking elbow pathology. This paper reviews a comprehensive and concise exam of the elbow that can easily be employed in a primary care sports medicine setting.