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physical activity

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Physical inactivity is a known risk factor for stroke. The interaction between exercise and risk of stroke is complex. Physical activity has a beneficial effect on most risk factors for stroke, which may show reciprocal potentiation (e.g. obesity, sleep apnea, atrial fibrillation). Advice on physical activity is of importance in primary prevention of stroke. Hereby, type, amount and intensity of physical activity may be distinguished and adjusted according to comorbidities (e.g. in case of heart failure).
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This case report presents the evolution of physiological and psychological health parameters of a former sedentary and physically inactive nursing student during an 18 months period (three academic semesters), during which she first took part to a one-semester institutional physical activity (PA) program offered by her University, before being selected to participate in relay to the Race Across America (RAAM) with a team of the University. The four months before the RAAM, she followed a cycling specific training program. After the RAAM, she was followed-up the next eight months.
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After having a stroke the main challenges are reducing the risk of recurrent stroke, improving impaired brain function, quality of life, independence in activities of daily living and reintegration into the community. [1] Lesion-induced impairment of brain function also has, besides its effects on e.g. motor, sensory, visual and speech function, an influence on e.g. cognition and mood, all of which are determinants of post-stroke physical activity. The evidence for a benefit of physical activity in secondary stroke prevention is increasing and treatment strategies aimed at factors which are limiting physical activity are more and more recognized.
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This article aims to summarize the literature on the role of physical activity in cancer patients and to propose exercise programs based on studies and recommendations. Medical advances with improved early diagnosis and treatment have increased the number of cancer survivors. At the same time, the quality of life of these patients must also be improved. In the different stages of the disease physical activity has an important role to play with its beneficial effects on fatigue, physical condition, mood etc. Collaboration between health system actors and patient education are the key to success in this multi-disciplinary care.
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Physical activity provides huge opportunities for the health of nations. Understanding this, the World Health Organization has published a Global Action Plan which aims to provide member states with a framework for action, namely to create active societies, people, environments and systems. The target is set at a 15% reduction in physical inactivity levels by 2030. We explore in this paper some of the challenges and opportunities that come with it, and give the practitioner some real-world opportunities for relevant action at the local level, as well as for their patients, staying true to the Physician’s Pledge (Declaration of Geneva): “I will attend to my own health, well-being, and abilities in order to provide care of the highest standard.”
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The benefits of physical activity for the healthy development of children and adolescents are now undisputed. Therefore, recommendations for physical activity based on current ­scientific knowledge are installed. Although there are national differences, the primary goal is to motivate children and ­adolescents in different settings to be more active and less inactive. The extent to which this is possible or what factors are necessary at a political, scientific and actor-oriented level is critically discussed in this article.
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As demonstrated for most of solid tumors, recent clinical studies clearly suggested that physical activity could play a key role in the management of patients with hematological malignancies, as a non-drug therapy. Physical activity interventions contribute to improve the quality of life of patients, mainly by reducing cancer-related fatigue (P<0.005), enhancing physical functioning (P<0.001), reducing the prevalence of depression including minor and major depressive episodes (P<0.05). However, if physical activity appears to be beneficial for patients with hematological malignancies, research is required to determine the benefits of different physical activities (i.e. type of exercise, intensity, frequency), and decipher the appropriate timing of intervention initiation.
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Strategies to improve cognitive aging are highly needed. Among those, promotion of exercise and physical activity appears as one of the most attractive and beneficial intervention. Indeed, results from basic and clinical studies suggest that exercise and physical activity have positive effects on cognition in older persons without cognitive impairment, as well as in those with dementia. Despite inconsistent results, aerobic exercise appears to have the strongest potential to enhance cognition. However, even limited periods of walking (45 minutes, three times a week, over a 6-month period) have also been shown to enhance cognition, particularly executive functions.
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Physical activity (PA) and exercise training (ET) are central and indispensable components for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In healthy individuals, PA reduces all-cause and CV mortality and has confirmed beneficial effects on the cardiovascular risk profile. In secondary prevention, PA counselling und ET are two of the core components of a multidisciplinary cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program. Exercise-based CR is an established strategy in the secondary prevention of CV disease. It improves survival, reduces hospital admissions, improves cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and quality of life (QoL).
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Physical activity is recognized as a basic component of the management of the obese child, but it is not clear which kind of intervention is the most efficient. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of prescribed exercise training in obese children. We reviewed 19 studies, 10 RCT and 9 observational studies, published in the last 5 years. In the majority of these studies obese children were treated as ambulatory patient, in tertiary centers. Only 2 studies described a community based program. In half of the studies, drop-out was not reported and the rate of attendance was rarely described. On the other hand, the content of each session was well described, but exercise training intensity was below international recommendations.
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