Category

training

Category
This case report presents the evolution of physiological and psychological health parameters of a former sedentary and physically inactive nursing student during an 18 months period (three academic semesters), during which she first took part to a one-semester institutional physical activity (PA) program offered by her University, before being selected to participate in relay to the Race Across America (RAAM) with a team of the University. The four months before the RAAM, she followed a cycling specific training program. After the RAAM, she was followed-up the next eight months.
Read More
Background: High altitude training seems beneficial for many athletes. However, training in altitude is always associated with travel and high expenses. Thus, methods have been developed to achieve similar effects as with high altitude training. One method is voluntary hypoventilation training (VHT). Although commonly used in training, the effectiveness of this method has not been analysed sufficiently.  Methods: Intervention studies of voluntary hypoventilation training were identified from searches in PubMed, SciVerse Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EBSCOhost and Google Scholar.
Read More
High intensity training (HIT) is a variant of single-set training. It is becoming increasingly popular in strength training practice. Contrary to the large number of research on multiple-set training, empirical investigations addressing HIT are rare. There is evidence that an important factor for muscle hypertrophy is the muscle time under tension (TUT). However, scientific knowledge about the optimal length of the TUT is lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a rather short TUT (20–40 s) with a rather long TUT (50–70 s) during HIT strength training. Nine experienced recreational sportsmen completed a ten week HIT strength training either with the short or the long TUT.
Read More
Background: In high performance sports, a large variety of training and periodization concepts are used in daily training. However, at present it is unclear which combination of intensity, training duration and training frequency is superior thus producing the best adaptations. A promising, yet poorly scientifically investigated concept is the concept of a polarized training periodization. Methods: Prospective Studies, which examined polarized training compared to other training concepts, were identified from searches in Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, SciVerse Science Direct and Web of Science.
Read More
Physical activity (PA) and exercise training (ET) are central and indispensable components for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In healthy individuals, PA reduces all-cause and CV mortality and has confirmed beneficial effects on the cardiovascular risk profile. In secondary prevention, PA counselling und ET are two of the core components of a multidisciplinary cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program. Exercise-based CR is an established strategy in the secondary prevention of CV disease. It improves survival, reduces hospital admissions, improves cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and quality of life (QoL).
Read More
The knowledge of the effects of conditioning muscle activities on the following performances is highly relevant in professional sports. In this paper, an attempt was made to analyse the direct effects of a sensorimotor training (SMT) on the explosive leg strength. Therefore 28 physically active subjects were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (IG) or a control group (CG). Subjects were tested on two separate days. Isometric maximum voluntary contractions were investigated in a leg press. Maximum rate of force development RFDmax as well as neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles were analysed in all subjects and compared between days.
Read More
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the ability to perceive an Exertion quantified through BORG-Scale (6-20) and endurance level. Therefore 16 females and 28 males completed a lactate performance diagnostic as well as a 5000 meter course. Subjective Perception of effort was quantified according to BORG Scale (6-20). Participants were sex-divided and grouped in well endurance trained participants and not endurance trained participants. The analysis showed no clear differences between the two groups. Generally, lactate showed a closer correlative relationship with subjective perceived exertion than heart rate.
Read More
Due to methodological and technical challenges brain cortical activity has rarely been investigated during endurance exercise. In this respect, it is not surprising that effects of an acute bout of interval training on central nervous activity have not been examined yet. Therefore, the aim of the present investigation was to characterize acute adaptations of brain cortical activity and established parameters to a high intensity endurance session. In a laboratory study sixteen endurance-trained cyclists completed an exercise bout including 3 interval series on a high-performance bicycle ergometer. Changes in cortical activity were recorded with quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) and analyzed in five specific frequency ranges (theta, alpha-1, alpha-2, beta-1, beta-2).
Read More
In recent decades, increasingly greying societies have been noticed in industrialized nations. The rise in medical care necessary to manage the health of this aging population will ensue huge financial burdens on the healthcare system. The increase of age-specific diseases, compounded by declines in neuromuscular performance constitute two key reasons for a rise in the medical care of older people. Current scientific knowledge reveals that a consequence of aging is the loss of muscle mass and thus, a decrease in maximum and explosive strength.
Read More
Quantifying actual individual training intensity in resistance training is essential for athletes and trainers, but is at present only possible with methodological problems. Thus, the purpose of this article is to examine the relationship of different types of RPE (rating of perceived exertion) with blood lactate concentrations in hypertrophy training. Hereby it is possible, to deduce conclusions about the validity of the RPE-scale and different times of monitoring. In this article two studies with male subjects are presented (study 1: n=10, 23.7 ± 2.8 years; study 2: n=16, 24.9 ± 2.0 years). In both surveys, subjects had to complete 3 sets with 3 minutes of rest between sets in every exercise. Blood lactate was measured before each exercise and two minutes after the completion of each set.
Read More