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training

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Major depressive Disorder (MDD) is a widespread and burdensome disease. People with MDD suffer from loss of interest and pleasure in activities that they would usually enjoy. In addition, they report anxiety, complex somatic pain syndromes, cognitive restrictions, loss of sexual interest, impaired sleep and social withdrawal. MDD is the leading cause for years lived with disability (YLD) in women and men and has a lifetime prevalence of 10-20 %.
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The current ideal of beauty consists of a strong shift towards physical activity and aims to develop a muscular, athletic physique. While the athletic ideal for women has been a product of recent years, the muscular ideal for men has been observed since the 1970s. Increasing pressure to achieve this muscular ideal is associated with both body dissatisfaction and a strong desire to increase muscularity. In extreme terms, the pursuit of a muscular body and its associated behaviours, such as strength training and dieting, may lead to the development of muscle dysmorphia.
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Background: The development of Mountain Ultra Marathon (MUM) raises several questions to health professionals, regarding the short or long-term consequences on the health of participants. Objective: to present the main acute and long-term effects of MUM on the main health issues usually studied among runners. Methods: Pragmatic review of the literature, including grey literature from the medical staff of the races, notably the Ultra-trail du Mont Blanc. Results:
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Background: In high performance sports, a large variety of training and periodization concepts are used in daily training. However, at present it is unclear which combination of intensity, training duration and training frequency is superior thus producing the best adaptations. A promising, yet poorly scientifically investigated concept is the concept of a polarized training periodization. Methods: Prospective Studies, which examined polarized training compared to other training concepts, were identified from searches in Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, SciVerse Science Direct and Web of Science.
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The diagnostic protocol presented here allows orienteers to compare themselves to others in the sample and to analyse the proportion of physical and technical skills in their overall performance. In order to test the protocol 3 female and ­ 11 male leisure athletes completed two short orienteering courses, one with four control points (distance 0.80 km, al­titude 5 m) and one with eight (distance 1.95 km, alti­tude 40 m). The average running time was 6 min and 40 sec (± 2 min 18 sec) on the short and 17 min 36 sec (5 min ± 1 sec) on the long course when orienteering. After courses were marked with the optimum route running times decreased, as expected, to 3 min 45 sec (± 48 sec) on the short and 9 min 21 sec (± 1 min 19 sec) on the long course.
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Quantifying actual individual training intensity in resistance training is essential for athletes and trainers, but is at present only possible with methodological problems. Thus, the purpose of this article is to examine the relationship of different types of RPE (rating of perceived exertion) with blood lactate concentrations in hypertrophy training. Hereby it is possible, to deduce conclusions about the validity of the RPE-scale and different times of monitoring. In this article two studies with male subjects are presented (study 1: n=10, 23.7 ± 2.8 years; study 2: n=16, 24.9 ± 2.0 years). In both surveys, subjects had to complete 3 sets with 3 minutes of rest between sets in every exercise. Blood lactate was measured before each exercise and two minutes after the completion of each set.
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Strength training guidelines tend to be based on stress factors such as relative weight, repetitions, sets, rest inbetween sets, muscle action velocity and number of sessions per week. Based on the stress-strain-concept, empirical results and training experience require additional parameters related to the molecular and cellular adaptations for an effective strength training concept. In contrast to what has generally been assumed, it is notable that the individual percentage of 1-Repetition-Maximum (1 RM) is not the intensity but only a relative training load and therefore a stress factor. Intensity is referred to here as a strain factor, operationalized as the level of effort applied to a given load.
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Strength and power are next to the other conditional requirements, as well as the technical, tactical, psychological requirements, a limiting factor in team sports. Therefore, it makes sense to also train strength. The maximal strength is understood as the maximal force the neuromuscular system can produce during a maximal voluntary contraction. A high maximal power is in many sports a basis for a high level of performance. The explosive strength is the ability of the neuromuscular system to develop a maximum impulse within a given time (Schmidtbleicher, 2003).
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