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performance

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While addictive disorders involving substances are well researched, the field of behavioral addictions, including exercise addiction, is in its infancy. Although exercise addiction is not yet recognized as a psychiatric disorder, evidence for the burden it imposes has gained attention in the last decade. Characterised by a rigid exercise schedule, the prioritization of exercise over one’s own health, family and professional life, and mental wellbeing, and extreme distress when exercise is halted, the phenomenon shares many feature with substance use disorders.
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Competitive and elite sport often challenges the balance between health and performance, especially when it involves youth athletes. As Lausanne was getting ready to host the 2020 winter Youth Olympic Games, we had the opportunity to reflect on these challenges and on what they mean for sports medicine practitioners. Elite sport pushes athletes to the limit, be it through their own intrinsic drive to achieve ever more, or through the pressures of the multiple stakeholders around sport.
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How fortunate to have been able to take part in the medical organisation of the Lausanne 2020 Winter Youth Olympic Games (YOG) as head of the Olympic Village Medical Clinic and Medical Education Programme manager, while introducing some innovations to the Games! From a clinical point of view, the temporary creation of a high quality interdisciplinary medical clinic provided all participants aged 14 to 18 years old with global and equitable care. We adopted the WHO criteria to offer an adolescent friendly setting.
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The Youth Olympic Games were introduced in 2010 with the aim to bring young athletes not only an experience of competition on the world stage, but also to help them learn about the Olympic values, explore other cultures and develop the skills to become true ambassadors. The Lausanne 2020 Games provided an excellent opportunity to develop innovative concepts for health promotion and sports-related prevention. The enthusiasm across various sectors of society (political, academic and economy) empowered us to bring together multiple skills to materialize the IOC’s pledge.
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This observational study used field tests to investigate the association between physiological parameters and rowing performance in athletes during ergometer and on-water Swiss national competitions. 25 Participants between 15 and 35 years who compete at national level were recruited among different clubs. We assessed anthropometric parameters such as weight, height, aerobic capacity during an incremental test on a rowing ergometer, anaerobic capacity during an on rowing ergometer Wingate test and lower limb strength and power during countermovement- and squat jumps.
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Background: The development of Mountain Ultra Marathon (MUM) raises several questions to health professionals, regarding the short or long-term consequences on the health of participants. Objective: to present the main acute and long-term effects of MUM on the main health issues usually studied among runners. Methods: Pragmatic review of the literature, including grey literature from the medical staff of the races, notably the Ultra-trail du Mont Blanc. Results:
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In cardiopulmonary exercise testing with children and adolescents, age specific protocols are used together with tools adjustable to their body dimension and development. Assessing weight, height und pubertal stage is a prerequisite for the interpretation of every test. Indications for exercise testing are airway symptoms and findings limited performance, chronic diseases, planning of trainings and scientific studies. The more tests are standardized and used on a large scale, the more normal values are available to compare individual results. However, the interindividual variability of measured values is high, depending as much from the developmental stage of the individual as from protocols, tools and the performing laboratory.
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Endurance testing has a long tradition in the Swiss Orienteering Federation. It has become an important tool in monitoring effectiveness of training and in assessing endurance performance. The vast majority of athletes and coaches indicate that sport science is meaningful and endurance testing is of high informative value for them. Endurance testing is regularly done in the lab, but also field tests are carried out each year. They particularly empower and support athletes in their specific preparation for important competitions. Also in the future new competition formats can be prepared and training may be monitored by a new format of specific tests. In various endurance sports physiological demands may be similar.
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Exercise testing in athletes and patients is an important and valuable diagnostic tool in the hand of the physician and sport scientist. A close collaboration between sport scientist and sport physician creates a win-win-win-situation for athletes and patients and professionals equally. According to the demands of the sport an incremental lactate threshold test (determination of the anaerobic threshold), testing of ­VO2max and performance at VO2max, and a testing of aerobic capacity (performance at competitional level) are the tests of choice. All tests need to be valid, reliable and sport specific. Sport specificity in testing is for practical purposes the most important.
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Recording the endurance lactate concentration has for some 40 years now been considered the most sensitive parameter for identifying and differentiating the aerobic capacity in muscle metabolism. Lactate behavior or the lactate-running-speed ratio is influenced under lab conditions both by the shock absorption of the specific treadmill type, the treadmill angle of inclination, and outdoors by the ground conditions. What is decisive for both indoor and outdoor measurements is the integrative lactate behavior.
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