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performance

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Recording the endurance lactate concentration has for some 40 years now been considered the most sensitive parameter for identifying and differentiating the aerobic capacity in muscle metabolism. Lactate behavior or the lactate-running-speed ratio is influenced under lab conditions both by the shock absorption of the specific treadmill type, the treadmill angle of inclination, and outdoors by the ground conditions. What is decisive for both indoor and outdoor measurements is the integrative lactate behavior.
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Background: Vitamin D concentrations corresponding to 75 nmol/L of 25(OH)D or more have been related to maintained muscle function, growth and regeneration, to optimal bone health and immunology in athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate prevalence and predictors of insufficient 25(OH)D concentrations in athletes and to come up with recommendations for our Swiss athletes. Methods: 603 competitive Swiss athletes were assessed during their annual pre-participation examination. A standardized questionnaire was used to gather information about potential predictors for 25(OH)D concentrations.
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Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) as a measure of the cardiac autonomic nervous system activity (CANA) has the potential to tailor endurance training and may contribute to the prevention of overtraining. We aimed to investigate whether there are sex differences and sex-specific reactions of the CANA to different training periods (TPs) in Swiss elite runners. Methods: Two HRV measurements (each 5 minutes supine and 5 minutes standing) per athlete were performed, the first during preparation period (PP) and the second during competition period (CP).
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To counter progressive dehydration and thirst, athletes drink during exercise. However, despite decades of scientific research, there is still no conclusive answer regarding how much we should drink to optimize performance. The goal of this review article is to analyze the arguments underpinning contrasting perspectives and to critically analyze the available evidence. It seems that the respective argumentations of contrasting viewpoints are based on a different selective fraction of the available evidence.
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As soon as he prescibes medicine to an athlete, any physician is confrounted if he wants or not, and if he is aware of it or not, with the numerous and often complex rules treating with the universal fight against doping. In case of an involountary mistakee or not, the doctor can be involved in very unpleasant situations over different regulations. As ignorance is no valid defense form, it seems obvious that it is very imporant that each practitionner is informed the better possible about these legal aspects. This is the objective of the following presentation.
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Background: During the last years many studies were conducted to investigate the contribution of various genetic variants to endurance and sprint/power performance of elite athletes. Data on team sport athletes are missing to a large extent. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the frequency of selected polymorphisms on elite athlete status in Austrian team sport (handball, soccer), endurance and power athletes as well as in healthy control subjects.
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The Athlete Biological Passport detects the effect of doping on the organism through longitudinal monitoring of biomarkers. The first quantitative analysis is performed by a software algorithm based on the Bayes theorem, taking into account previous values of the athlete. Profiles which have been found as abnormal with this technique are submitted for qualitative analysis to an expert panel regarding potential causes for the abnormality. Possible causes include analytical shortcomings, Pathologies, extremes of physiological regulation or doping.
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The intermittent fasting of Ramadan could affect various aspects of body physiology and biochemistry important to athletic success. Sleep time may be shortened. Disturbance of psychomotor performance, impaired vigilance and slower reactions can be observed particularly during afternoon. Food intake is limited to night-time meals. Well disciplined athletes usually maintain energy balance unless daily energy expenditures are very high. Daytime fluid depletion is inevitable if athletes exercise in the heat.
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Iron deficiency is frequent among athletes. All types of iron deficiency may affect physical performance and should be treated. The main mechanisms by which sport leads to iron deficiency are an increased iron demand, an elevated iron loss and a blockage of iron absorption due to hepcidin bursts. As a baseline set of blood tests, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean cellular volume (MCV), mean cellular haemoglobin (MCH) and serum ferritin levels are the important parameters to monitor iron deficiency. In healthy male and female athletes >15 years, ferritin values <15µg/l are equivalent to empty, values from 15 to 30µg/l to low iron stores. Therefore a cut-off of 30µg/l is appropriate.
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Background Orienteering takes place in a range of different areas including mountains and woodlands, whereby motoric and coordinative requirements on the orienteers differ strongly de­pending on the respective terrain. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in average speed of orienteers in three terrain types in Switzerland: Alps, Jura and Mittelland.
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