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coaching

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Objectives: The objectives of this study were to observe the developmental trajectories of motivation types among young children from 8 to 12 years using a more comprehensive scale of physical education motivation. We also tested the relations between these trajectories and objective physical activity during this period.
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The fight against doping is not primarily a fight against fallible athletes and coaches but rather a fight for clean athletes and coaches. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate how Swiss athletes and coaches perceive the doping problem and the current anti-doping policy. Two online surveys of 1040 Swiss squad coaches and 588 Swiss athletes of various sports were conducted in 2016 and 2017. 41.5% of athletes and 31.5% of coaches identified a serious doping problem in their sport. This perception varied significantly by sport (p≤0.001). 94.2% of athletes and 91.7% of coaches argued in support of a strict prohibition of doping.
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High intensity training (HIT) is a variant of single-set training. It is becoming increasingly popular in strength training practice. Contrary to the large number of research on multiple-set training, empirical investigations addressing HIT are rare. There is evidence that an important factor for muscle hypertrophy is the muscle time under tension (TUT). However, scientific knowledge about the optimal length of the TUT is lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a rather short TUT (20–40 s) with a rather long TUT (50–70 s) during HIT strength training. Nine experienced recreational sportsmen completed a ten week HIT strength training either with the short or the long TUT.
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Background: In high performance sports, a large variety of training and periodization concepts are used in daily training. However, at present it is unclear which combination of intensity, training duration and training frequency is superior thus producing the best adaptations. A promising, yet poorly scientifically investigated concept is the concept of a polarized training periodization. Methods: Prospective Studies, which examined polarized training compared to other training concepts, were identified from searches in Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, SciVerse Science Direct and Web of Science.
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We suggest that leisure cross country skiers can also profit from a serious endurance capacity diagnostic. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable and valid protocol in order to make serious recommendation for training schedule of athleths. In order to analyze the relationship between endurance performance and the technic specific capabilities of cross country skiing aiming to allow valid recommendations participants had to absolve two test protocols. The first test consisted of detecting running pace on a treadmill at a 4 mmol/l blood lactate concentration. Second, participants had to absolve a Coopertest in skating technique on flat ground allowing to measure maximum distance absolved during 12 minutes and maximum heart rate.
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This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the ability to perceive an Exertion quantified through BORG-Scale (6-20) and endurance level. Therefore 16 females and 28 males completed a lactate performance diagnostic as well as a 5000 meter course. Subjective Perception of effort was quantified according to BORG Scale (6-20). Participants were sex-divided and grouped in well endurance trained participants and not endurance trained participants. The analysis showed no clear differences between the two groups. Generally, lactate showed a closer correlative relationship with subjective perceived exertion than heart rate.
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Strength training guidelines tend to be based on stress factors such as relative weight, repetitions, sets, rest inbetween sets, muscle action velocity and number of sessions per week. Based on the stress-strain-concept, empirical results and training experience require additional parameters related to the molecular and cellular adaptations for an effective strength training concept. In contrast to what has generally been assumed, it is notable that the individual percentage of 1-Repetition-Maximum (1 RM) is not the intensity but only a relative training load and therefore a stress factor. Intensity is referred to here as a strain factor, operationalized as the level of effort applied to a given load.
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