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sports and youth

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Objectives: The objectives of this study were to observe the developmental trajectories of motivation types among young children from 8 to 12 years using a more comprehensive scale of physical education motivation. We also tested the relations between these trajectories and objective physical activity during this period.
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The Lausanne Youth Olympic Games in January 2020 rep­resent a unique opportunity for the canton of Vaud to ­strengthen its policy of health promotion through physical activity and sport among young people. Several factors influence physical activity and physical fitness of a population. Ecological models describe correlates of physical activity in general population and youth. However, no model describes correlates of physical fitness. To close this gap, the model of physical fitness and its correlates among children and adolescents of the canton of Vaud (PACE model) was developed.
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The elbow is a frequently underestimated and commonly misunderstood joint, leading to a considerable amount of clinical problems. A large part of this due to the largely overlapping and often unspecific symptoms of various diseases and injuries. A better understanding of elbow symptoms and the clinical exam of the elbow is the key to unlocking elbow pathology. This paper reviews a comprehensive and concise exam of the elbow that can easily be employed in a primary care sports medicine setting.
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The shoulder is the second most commonly injured joint in Sports Traumatology. A thorough clinical examination is mandatory for a strategic therapy regime. A standardized and, importantly, gentle and pain sparing, physical examination not only builts the basis for above mentioned, yet also provides a base in the doctor-patient relationship. The following guideline is meant to aid in these regards. Nonetheless, clinical experience is of utmost importance in combination with a correct physical examination. Hence, if hesitation is present about the diagnosis or treatment, there should be no hesitation in consulting an expert.
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Back pain has become one of the most frequent sports-related health problems. Up to 80% of the Swiss population experience at least one episode per year up to several times per week. It affects athletes of all age groups and all levels of activity equally. The causes of acute and chronic back pain are plentiful, but can be easily appreciated with a thorough and comprehensive history, concise clinical examination, and adequate imaging.
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Young competitive athletes are particularly at risk during puberty. Growth plates and apophyses are reduced in their stability by hormone influence. Epiphyses can slip, apophyses can tear out. Therefore, a regular examination of those athletes is important. The examination should focus on muscular asymmetries, or reduced range of motion of a joint. Shortened muscles have to be recon as a risk factor for apophysitis. Dysbalances of the musculature are mainly found in the trunk area. Training plans should be adapted to the increased vulnerability.
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There seems to be a lack of consensus among medical associations, professional sports bodies and medical professionals about when pre-participation evaluations (PPE) are indicated and how they should be designed. Although it is generally accepted that the primary purpose of the PPE is the identification of cardiovascular disease and risk factors for sudden cardiac death in competitive athletes, there is an ongoing debate on which methods are most apt in the screening process. Furthermore, the need of PPE has been questioned all together in leisure or hobby athletes.
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Until now, there have been no studies in Switzerland that investigate differences in the motor performance disposition of children in urban and rural as well as in traditional and physical education kindergartens. A newly developed test instrument (MOBAK-KG) was therefore used in a supra-­cantonal research project in school year 2017/18 to test the motor skills of 4- to 6-year-old children (n = 403, Ø 5,7 years, SD = .56) in the areas of “self-movement” and «object-movement».
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Sudden death of an athlete is the most devastating medical event in sports. While accidents account for more than 50% of these cases, sudden cardiac deaths (SCD) are less frequent (approx. 15%), but the leading medical cause of deaths. The risk depends on age, sex, ethnicity, type of sport and sport level. There are large variations in the methods of registration of SCD in recreational and competitive sports. This must be taken into account when interpreting reported incidences and causes. High data quality in registries is a prerequisite for meaningful preventive strategies (e.g. ECG screening and safety at sports facilities).
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