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sports psychology

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Objectives: The objectives of this study were to observe the developmental trajectories of motivation types among young children from 8 to 12 years using a more comprehensive scale of physical education motivation. We also tested the relations between these trajectories and objective physical activity during this period.
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Current physical activity recommendations are based on epidemiological-medical findings. They define what doses of physical activity are necessary for positive health effects: adults should be physically active at least 2½ hours per week with moderate or 1¼ hours with high intensity. However, some people find it difficult to implement these recommendations and to be active in the longer term. For optimal long-term adherence, physical activity recommendations should also be based on psychology.
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Adolescence is triggered by puberty and corresponds to a time of great changes in many fields including biological, psychological, cognitive and social. Participation to a sport activity improves self-esteem, socialisation with peers and physical condition. Yet, it sometimes is associated with suffering, restrictive behaviours and eating disorders when performed at an intensive level. Intensive sport activity during adolescence should take into account young people’s developmental stages as well as their fundamental needs in order to promote a harmonious training. One way to promote such training is to train parents and medical health providers to recognise these specific developmental needs and take them into account.
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Pendant les années 2011–2013, 151 jeunes talents sportifs et artistes du programme pour talents sportifs et artistiques du Canton du Tessin («Programme pour talents SMS») ont participé à un projet de suivi de leur santé sur le plan psychologique. Les objectifs visés par ce projet étaient l’évaluation du risque de surcharge psychologique de la population observée et le test de l’efficacité d’une intervention psycho-éducative de groupe pour réduire ce risque. Les jeunes talents – subdivisés en un groupe intervention (n=28) et un groupe contrôle (n=123) – ont rempli un questionnaire d’entrée (PRE), mesurant les paramètres psychologiques tels que l’anxiété, les motivations intrinsèques, ainsi que quatre facteurs de burnout et la perception d’un conflit d’intérêt entre pratique sportive/artistique et études. 8 mois après, ils ont été à nouveau interrogés au moyen du même questionnaire (POST), complété par des questions d’évaluation finale. Les réponses aux questionnaires d’entrée ont permis de montrer que 57.6% de l’ensemble des jeunes talents sont potentiellement à risque de surcharge psychologique.
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