The shoulder is the second most commonly injured joint in Sports Traumatology. A thorough clinical examination is mandatory for a strategic therapy regime. A standardized and, importantly, gentle and pain sparing, physical examination not only builts the basis for above mentioned, yet also provides a base in the doctor-patient relationship. The following guideline is meant to aid in these regards. Nonetheless, clinical experience is of utmost importance in combination with a correct physical examination. Hence, if hesitation is present about the diagnosis or treatment, there should be no hesitation in consulting an expert.
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Autologous blood injections have received considerable attention in recent time and are being employed for a variety of indications. Their mechanism of action is to fill or cover a defect and then locally release growth factors which will ini­tiate and maintain wound healing processes. Building on these processes, positive Effects of autologous bllod have been shown for the treatment of tendons, ligaments and cartilage defects. Currently, research is being done to expand these indications by the deliberate addition of cells or supporting biomaterials. This paper elucidates the effect of and indications for the use of autologous blood from the shoulder to the ankle.
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