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muscle

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Concentric and eccentric muscle work is characterized through different biochemical activating cascades. Concentric contraction is characterized by an ATP O2 coupling dependent interaction of the myofibril proteins Aktin and Myosin. In eccentric contraction, according to the Wind­ing-filament hypothesis, a rotation movement around the thin filament is caused which is ATP independent. In addition, the processes of motor anticipation vary greatly between the two. This leads to the aim of the study: What are the differences in concentric versus eccentric muscle work concerning anticipation, perception and execution.
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Objective: To determine differences between male and female subjects in the thigh muscles characteristics, separated into architectural (pennation, thickness, and/or fascicle length), mechanical (mass, strength, power, and/or stiffness), neuromuscular (activity) and fatigue aspects, in order to better understand the sex-related differences in the risk of muscle injuries. Methods: A systematic literature search on Pubmed was performed with different keywords: skeletal muscle AND sex characteristics AND muscle contraction, with the following limits: humans and adults (19–44 years old).
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The human foot is a flexible structure characterized by a pronounced medial longitudinal arch (MLA) that compresses and recoils during running. That process is actively driven by the intrinsic foot muscles and requires a proper stability of the MLA. This introduces the concept of foot core stability. Because the intrinsic foot muscles are often neglected by clinicians and researchers, the purpose of this article is to provide some guidelines for incorporating foot core training in prevention or rehabilitation programmes for runners.
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Apophysitis are part of the growth-related diseases within youth athlete population. Despite their high incidence within this growing cohort, many doubts remain. The physiopathology is still debated. Initially, the fragmentation of the ossification center was seen as the main factor of the disease. For few years, this theory has been questioned due to consistent signs of tendon suffering. Apophysitis may have some negative long-term effect on a sporting career. There is currently poor scientific evidence on the optimal management and no treatment has been widely accepted.
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