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exercise is medicine

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This paper highlights the findings of a comparative cross-sectional study in the cantons of Uri (UR) and Schwyz (SZ). In this study, participating in sports and daily physical activity among 5th grades were observed trough selected indicators. The study was conducted in autumn 2012 and 2013 and included a randomly selected sample of 161 pupils in Uri (10.6±0.7 year olds) and 261 pupils in the canton of Schwyz (10.7±0.7 year olds). In both regions, a high rate of participation in free time sports activities could be detected: 68.8% (UR) and 70.1% (SZ) of all the children involved are members of a sports club, with more than half of them, being active, both in and outside of sports club.
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Regular sports activity is not only healthy for cardiovascular and psychological reasons, but it is neither a risk factor for increased risk for osteoarthritis, except for posttraumatic osteoarthritis due to sports injuries. But there are few hints that excessice sports activity may lead to increased risk for osteoarthritis. Therefore, adapted and moderate sports activity can be recommended and should be promoted for osteoar­thritis or after total joint replacement of the lower extremity. This leads to increased functional and subjective outcome.
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Eine «Low Energy Fraktur» ist das wichtigste klinische Symptom einer Osteoporose. Der ältere Sportler weist ein geringes Risiko für das Eintreten dieses Ereignisses auf. Die mit der sportlichen Aktivität verbundenen Stösse und Belastungen auf den Knochen wirken einem drohenden Abbau von Knochensubstanz nämlich entgegen. Sollte es im Rahmen der sportlichen Aktivität dennoch zur Fraktur kommen, dann entspricht der Unfallmechanismus in aller Regel nicht den Kriterien einer «Low Energy Fraktur».
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In recent decades, increasingly greying societies have been noticed in industrialized nations. The rise in medical care necessary to manage the health of this aging population will ensue huge financial burdens on the healthcare system. The increase of age-specific diseases, compounded by declines in neuromuscular performance constitute two key reasons for a rise in the medical care of older people. Current scientific knowledge reveals that a consequence of aging is the loss of muscle mass and thus, a decrease in maximum and explosive strength.
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Senior sportsmen and -women still participate in great numbers in sport events, particularly in endurance sports. Among the participants of the Jungfrau Marathon 2014 were 43% of the 3046 runners older than 50 years. These persons beeing active in sports have age related sportmedical problems. With four case reports the article tries to give concrete propositions to the sportsmed physician. Some of the graphics and tables are particularly appropriate for the counselling of active seniors in sports.
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As a consequence of the demographically related increase of dementia prevalence, modifiable risk factors are gaining in importance as possible preventative measures. Medical treatment cannot yet heal dementia. The effects of vascular risk factors as well as behaviour and lifestyle changes on cognitive decline are the subject of a wide range of current literature. The role of physical activity has proved to be especially beneficial. Multiple studies with different study designs describe direct or indirect positive effects of physical activity on cognitive abilities. The positive effects of physical activity are particularly notable in cognitive domains such as attention or executive functions, which are often impaired in dementia.
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Regular physical activity (PA) is a cornerstone of good health in the ageing population. Cardiorespiratory fitness is an important surrogate marker for survival. In primary cardiovascular disease prevention, PA is considered an effective mono­therapy with beneficial effects on the cardiovascular risk profile (e.g. lipid profile, blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, body composition) and endothelial function. In secondary prevention, PA is an addition to, rather than a replacement for evidence-based medication.
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Physical inactivity constitutes the fourth leading cause of death globally. Health systems are being called to respond to the epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and help deliver on the promise of prevention approaches. Substantial evidence exists in support of multi-prong physical activity counseling, prescription and referral strategies, in particular those linking clinical and community-based resources, to help increase physical activity (PA) levels. In late 2007, the “Exercise is Medicine” (EIM) initiative was established by the American College of Sports Medicine to institutionalize PA promotion into the US healthcare system.
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Health care professionals (HCPs) play an important role promoting healthy habits to patients, yet they lack knowledge, training and self-efficacy to effectively prescribe physical activity (PA). In 2011, the “Exercise is Medicine” Latin American Regional Center developed a one-day (8 hours) in-person course on PA and exercise prescription for HCPs, with theoretical and practical components. Contents include evidence-based health benefits of PA, screening for major risk factors, key behavioral change strategies, basic exercise testing, and prescription and referrals principles.
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Noncommunicable diseases, mainly cardiovascular diseases and cancers, and external causes account for more than 80% of mortality in Russia. The leading causes of death and disability are directly associated with behavioural risk factors, physical inactivity being one of them. Until a few years ago, a clear standard recommendation on physical activity (PA) counselling for general practitioners did not exist in Russia. In 2010, the guidelines on physical activity counselling for primary health care providers were developed. On the basis of these guidelines the national recommendations on PA were developed in 2011.
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