Physical activity (PA) and exercise training (ET) are central and indispensable components for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In healthy individuals, PA reduces all-cause and CV mortality and has confirmed beneficial effects on the cardiovascular risk profile. In secondary prevention, PA counselling und ET are two of the core components of a multidisciplinary cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program. Exercise-based CR is an established strategy in the secondary prevention of CV disease. It improves survival, reduces hospital admissions, improves cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and quality of life (QoL).
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The knowledge of the effects of conditioning muscle activities on the following performances is highly relevant in professional sports. In this paper, an attempt was made to analyse the direct effects of a sensorimotor training (SMT) on the explosive leg strength. Therefore 28 physically active subjects were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (IG) or a control group (CG). Subjects were tested on two separate days. Isometric maximum voluntary contractions were investigated in a leg press. Maximum rate of force development RFDmax as well as neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles were analysed in all subjects and compared between days.
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A career in elite sports requires a significant investment of time. Professional sportsmen, such as Swiss ice hockey players, are intensively involved in the system of high-performance sports. From junior years through to the end of a professional career, a high investment of time is necessary to develop the appropriate sporting achievements. Building an ice hockey career occurs at the same time as the school phase of vocational training. The high time-demand of sport training can affect the choices and occupational opportunities offered at this time. After the end of the professional career and hockey players are forced to enter ’normal’ working life.
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The intermittent fasting of Ramadan could affect various aspects of body physiology and biochemistry important to athletic success. Sleep time may be shortened. Disturbance of psychomotor performance, impaired vigilance and slower reactions can be observed particularly during afternoon. Food intake is limited to night-time meals. Well disciplined athletes usually maintain energy balance unless daily energy expenditures are very high. Daytime fluid depletion is inevitable if athletes exercise in the heat.
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The human foot is a flexible structure characterized by a pronounced medial longitudinal arch (MLA) that compresses and recoils during running. That process is actively driven by the intrinsic foot muscles and requires a proper stability of the MLA. This introduces the concept of foot core stability. Because the intrinsic foot muscles are often neglected by clinicians and researchers, the purpose of this article is to provide some guidelines for incorporating foot core training in prevention or rehabilitation programmes for runners.
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Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is very prevalent in world population and growing evidence shows that also athletes are affected. Vitamin D deficiency causes beside bone disorders, musculoskeletal pain, muscle weakness and is associated with many other health disorders. For athletes in particular it may impair training and performance, prolong recovery and increase risk of injury. We therefore analyzed vitamin D levels in Swiss athletes focusing on prevalence according to age, gender, seasonal variations, indoor or outdoor sports, sunscreen use and vitamin D supplementation. Methods: This study was performed in a convenient sample of 655 Swiss Olympic athletes over one year.
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Iron deficiency is frequent among athletes. All types of iron deficiency may affect physical performance and should be treated. The main mechanisms by which sport leads to iron deficiency are an increased iron demand, an elevated iron loss and a blockage of iron absorption due to hepcidin bursts. As a baseline set of blood tests, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean cellular volume (MCV), mean cellular haemoglobin (MCH) and serum ferritin levels are the important parameters to monitor iron deficiency. In healthy male and female athletes >15 years, ferritin values <15µg/l are equivalent to empty, values from 15 to 30µg/l to low iron stores. Therefore a cut-off of 30µg/l is appropriate.
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“Tennis and golfer’s elbow” are common pathologies due to overload of forearm extensors and flexors, and actually occur mostly outside tennis and golf sports. Several differential diagnoses of medial and lateral epicondylitis have to be excluded as there are a number of other conditions with similar clinical symptoms. The high rate of spontaneous recovery has to be considered in treatment. Evidence based conservative treatment comprises excentric physiotherapy, local injections, and physical methods. Surgery is reserved for patients with persistence of symptoms for more than one year despite non-surgical treatment.
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The knee joint is affected in up to 30% of all sport injuries. A minor precentage of it are tendon injuries. For acute tendon injuries, quadriceps tendon rupture and patellar tendon rupture are most frequent. Beside that, ruptures of distal hamstring tendons or the popliteus tendon may occur. For chronic tendon injuries in sports, the jumpers knee and the runners knee are most frequent. Also insertional enthesopathy of the quadriceps tendon, of the iliotibial band, of the hamstring tendons may occur, furthermore a tendinitis or bursitis at the pes anserinus. These injuries are explained in this article focussing on symptoms, diagnostics and therapy.
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While lesions of the achilles tendon and posterior tibial tendon are common and well known, lesions of other ankle bridging tendons are rare and literature is sparse. However, many of these lesions are equally relevant in terms of maintaining the complex functionality of the foot. Such pathologies include tendinitis, tenosynovitis as well as partial and complete tears. If the continuity of the affected tendon is maintained, conservative treatment is appropriate. In cases of ruptures, operative therapy is often needed. Depending on the defect size and retraction of the tendon, auto- or allograft have to be used.
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The tendon has to be seen functionally within the muscle-tendon-unit. The tendon has to transmit the force that is produced by the muscle, but acts also as a spring that stores energy. The tendon itself consists of three parts: the tendon-bone insertion, the mid-portion area, and the muscle-tendon junction. The biomechanical properties belong primarily on type I collagen, that degenerates in case of tendinopathy.
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Background Orienteering takes place in a range of different areas including mountains and woodlands, whereby motoric and coordinative requirements on the orienteers differ strongly de­pending on the respective terrain. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in average speed of orienteers in three terrain types in Switzerland: Alps, Jura and Mittelland.
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Appropriate alternatives to the 1-RM strength test are multiple repetition maximum strength tests, particularly considering recreational sports. In contrast to the 1-RM strength test, limited research of multiple repetition maximum strength tests has been conducted and thus causes a shortage of standardized and evaluated test protocols. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of a 5-repetition maximum strength test, which excellent reliability was already confirmed, for the purposes of performance assessment and training control in recreational sports. Twenty-six healthy recreational athletes (25.9 ± 3.4 years;181.2 ± 5.1 cm;79.4 ± 8.7 kg) with at least one year experience of strength training completed two examinations, which implied a bench press exercise. In examination one, the 5-RM and the 1-RM was determined.
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The diagnostic protocol presented here allows orienteers to compare themselves to others in the sample and to analyse the proportion of physical and technical skills in their overall performance. In order to test the protocol 3 female and ­ 11 male leisure athletes completed two short orienteering courses, one with four control points (distance 0.80 km, al­titude 5 m) and one with eight (distance 1.95 km, alti­tude 40 m). The average running time was 6 min and 40 sec (± 2 min 18 sec) on the short and 17 min 36 sec (5 min ± 1 sec) on the long course when orienteering. After courses were marked with the optimum route running times decreased, as expected, to 3 min 45 sec (± 48 sec) on the short and 9 min 21 sec (± 1 min 19 sec) on the long course.
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Physical activity is recognized as a basic component of the management of the obese child, but it is not clear which kind of intervention is the most efficient. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of prescribed exercise training in obese children. We reviewed 19 studies, 10 RCT and 9 observational studies, published in the last 5 years. In the majority of these studies obese children were treated as ambulatory patient, in tertiary centers. Only 2 studies described a community based program. In half of the studies, drop-out was not reported and the rate of attendance was rarely described. On the other hand, the content of each session was well described, but exercise training intensity was below international recommendations.
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Adolescence is triggered by puberty and corresponds to a time of great changes in many fields including biological, psychological, cognitive and social. Participation to a sport activity improves self-esteem, socialisation with peers and physical condition. Yet, it sometimes is associated with suffering, restrictive behaviours and eating disorders when performed at an intensive level. Intensive sport activity during adolescence should take into account young people’s developmental stages as well as their fundamental needs in order to promote a harmonious training. One way to promote such training is to train parents and medical health providers to recognise these specific developmental needs and take them into account.
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