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prevention

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Ein junger Athlet sollte seine sportliche Tätigkeit über die gesamte Zeit von Wachstum und Entwicklung möglichst erfolgreich und mit Freuden durchführen können. Gerade sind von einem Expertenteam unter dem Hut des IOC lesenswerte Empfehlungen lanciert worden, wie gesunde, belastbare und fähige junge Athleten entstehen und wie diese optimal betreut werden sollen, jeder auf seinem sportlichen Niveau und mit seinen eigenen Erfolgsvorstellungen.
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Eine «Low Energy Fraktur» ist das wichtigste klinische Symptom einer Osteoporose. Der ältere Sportler weist ein geringes Risiko für das Eintreten dieses Ereignisses auf. Die mit der sportlichen Aktivität verbundenen Stösse und Belastungen auf den Knochen wirken einem drohenden Abbau von Knochensubstanz nämlich entgegen. Sollte es im Rahmen der sportlichen Aktivität dennoch zur Fraktur kommen, dann entspricht der Unfallmechanismus in aller Regel nicht den Kriterien einer «Low Energy Fraktur».
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As a consequence of the demographically related increase of dementia prevalence, modifiable risk factors are gaining in importance as possible preventative measures. Medical treatment cannot yet heal dementia. The effects of vascular risk factors as well as behaviour and lifestyle changes on cognitive decline are the subject of a wide range of current literature. The role of physical activity has proved to be especially beneficial. Multiple studies with different study designs describe direct or indirect positive effects of physical activity on cognitive abilities. The positive effects of physical activity are particularly notable in cognitive domains such as attention or executive functions, which are often impaired in dementia.
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Apophysitis are part of the growth-related diseases within youth athlete population. Despite their high incidence within this growing cohort, many doubts remain. The physiopathology is still debated. Initially, the fragmentation of the ossification center was seen as the main factor of the disease. For few years, this theory has been questioned due to consistent signs of tendon suffering. Apophysitis may have some negative long-term effect on a sporting career. There is currently poor scientific evidence on the optimal management and no treatment has been widely accepted.
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Objective. Sports injuries are one of the most common injuries in the modern Western society. In line with the increased interest in eHealth, a tailor-based online injury prevention intervention was developed to influence determinants and actual sports injury preventive behaviour. An effect study was carried out among runners. Methods. Runners between 18 and 35 years were randomly assigned to the intervention (n=109) or control group (n=105). Participants in the intervention group were invited to visit the website for 30 minutes. Those in the control group were invited to read magazines that did not contain information about running, injuries or other sport related issues for 30 minutes.
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Health care professionals (HCPs) play an important role promoting healthy habits to patients, yet they lack knowledge, training and self-efficacy to effectively prescribe physical activity (PA). In 2011, the “Exercise is Medicine” Latin American Regional Center developed a one-day (8 hours) in-person course on PA and exercise prescription for HCPs, with theoretical and practical components. Contents include evidence-based health benefits of PA, screening for major risk factors, key behavioral change strategies, basic exercise testing, and prescription and referrals principles.
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Noncommunicable diseases, mainly cardiovascular diseases and cancers, and external causes account for more than 80% of mortality in Russia. The leading causes of death and disability are directly associated with behavioural risk factors, physical inactivity being one of them. Until a few years ago, a clear standard recommendation on physical activity (PA) counselling for general practitioners did not exist in Russia. In 2010, the guidelines on physical activity counselling for primary health care providers were developed. On the basis of these guidelines the national recommendations on PA were developed in 2011.
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In Slovenia, the role of general practitioners in counselling physical activity for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well recognized. The role of general practitioners in advising healthy lifestyle for individuals who are at risk of developing CVD is formally defined in the National Program for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, which has been running since 2001. Part of the program is counselling on healthy lifestyle including physical activity, performed in all health centres across the country. First a screening and medical examination is performed. In case of higher risk for CVD (>20%) the physician should give advice on the particular risk factor and direct patients to health-education centres, where they can participate in healthy lifestyle workshops lead by health professionals.
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Primary care physicians in Germany are potentially in a pivotal position to provide physical activity counselling and exercise referral for their patients. The preventative prescription scheme dates back to the late 1970s. This scheme called “green prescription” (Grünes Rezept), however, could not be established as exercise referral scheme in primary care on a regular and systematic basis. After the German Medical Association (Bundesärztekammer), the German Association for Sports Medicine and Prevention (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention) and the German Olympic Sports Federation (Deutscher Olympischer Sportbund) had developed the standardized national quality criteria of Physical Activity on Prescription in a joint effort, the German Medical Association has adopted them in 2011 and now recommends them to the Medical Associations of the Federal States for implementation.
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In addition to the delivery of primary care services, recent changes to the NHS in the United Kingdom have placed increasing responsibility on GPs for the commissioning of the full range of health services from prevention through to clinical interventions and rehabilitation. Whilst historically there has always been an expectation that primary care professionals were ideally placed to provide support for prevention as well as treatment, their active engagement in the promotion of physical activity has remained largely superficial.
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