endurance exercise

Background: High altitude training seems beneficial for many athletes. However, training in altitude is always associated with travel and high expenses. Thus, methods have been developed to achieve similar effects as with high altitude training. One method is voluntary hypoventilation training (VHT). Although commonly used in training, the effectiveness of this method has not been analysed sufficiently.  Methods: Intervention studies of voluntary hypoventilation training were identified from searches in PubMed, SciVerse Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EBSCOhost and Google Scholar.
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Background: In high performance sports, a large variety of training and periodization concepts are used in daily training. However, at present it is unclear which combination of intensity, training duration and training frequency is superior thus producing the best adaptations. A promising, yet poorly scientifically investigated concept is the concept of a polarized training periodization. Methods: Prospective Studies, which examined polarized training compared to other training concepts, were identified from searches in Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, SciVerse Science Direct and Web of Science.
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