The elbow is a frequently underestimated and commonly misunderstood joint, leading to a considerable amount of clinical problems. A large part of this due to the largely overlapping and often unspecific symptoms of various diseases and injuries. A better understanding of elbow symptoms and the clinical exam of the elbow is the key to unlocking elbow pathology. This paper reviews a comprehensive and concise exam of the elbow that can easily be employed in a primary care sports medicine setting.
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Autologous blood injections have received considerable attention in recent time and are being employed for a variety of indications. Their mechanism of action is to fill or cover a defect and then locally release growth factors which will ini­tiate and maintain wound healing processes. Building on these processes, positive Effects of autologous bllod have been shown for the treatment of tendons, ligaments and cartilage defects. Currently, research is being done to expand these indications by the deliberate addition of cells or supporting biomaterials. This paper elucidates the effect of and indications for the use of autologous blood from the shoulder to the ankle.
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