Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg accounts for approximately 75% of sports-related chronic leg pain. Nevertheless, the exact and timely recognition in athletes might pose a great challenge to sports physicians. Among a variety of possible differential diagnoses such as tenosynovitis, stress fractures, periostalgia, or popliteal artery entrapment syndrome the physician has to be able to identify the correct entity as promptly as possible.
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